Monday, November 12, 2018

Wild Rice | Manoomin's Importance to Native Americans

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Gardening + History

Native Culture



Many people are unaware of the rich cultural tradition of wild rice in the state of Michigan and the important role it played in the lives of Native Americans. The Anishinaabek people, native to the territory we now know as Michigan, celebrated wild rice, manoomin, as a sacred plant. Barbara Barton traces the history and culture, in her new book, The Story of Wild Rice in Michigan, of the spiritual importance of this grain to the Anishinaabek tribe. Discussion is given to the historic wild rice beds in Michigan. Many of the beds disappeared, over the years, as populations of Americans colonizing the mid-west expanded. As the importance of wetlands grows, tribal as well as non-tribal ecologists are setting goals to restore and protect wetlands and native species, including Manoomin.

As this season rolls into a time of thanksgiving, this recollection and analysis of a time past, can remind us to take a moment to appreciate what God has provided to all of us. Thank you to Barbara Barton for her new book, The Story of Wild Rice in Michigan.



All material © 2007-2018 by Jeanette Hyden for Grassroots Horticulture
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Thursday, October 25, 2018

When it Rains | Read

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when you Can't get into the garden find a good book to read

 An autumn Nandina covered with raindrops. 
As the days become shorter, less sugars are produced in the leaf, and less green chloryphyll, a plant pigment.

"The name chlorophyllin comes from the ancient Greek chloros meaning 'green', and phyllon, which means 'leaf'."  
Chlorophyll is responsible for the alchemical process of photosynthesis, in which light from the sun is converted 
within the plant cells into biological energy". from, Botanical Inks
Green leaves can be used to make inks and dyes.
 

Botanical Inks : Plant-to-Print Dyes,
Techniques and Projects

Behan, Babs, and Kim Lightbody, 2018. 

Cover art

"Learn how to transform plants, garden produce and recycled food into dyes and inks with Botanical Inks. The book shows you how to extract environmentally sustainable colour from the landscape and use it to create natural dyes for textiles, clothing, paper and other materials. Botanical Inks covers dyeing and surface application techniques, including bundle dyeing, Shibori tie-dyeing, hapazome, indigo sugar vat dyeing, wood-block printing, screen printing and more. And it also shows you how to turn your new inks, dyes and technique knowledge into wonderful projects, from a simple bundle-dyed a scarf to a block-printed tote bag. The process of turning plants into print can help you reconnect with nature, find a creative outlet and develop a mindful sense of presence. It also promotes an awareness of sustainable practices and how to reduce our impact on the planet."

Table of Contents
Botanical inks: an introduction to natural dyeing --
Fibres, mordants and modifiers: how to choose the fibre and fix the dye --
Making dyes: how to make and use a dye bath --
Dye colours: understanding dye materials and the colours they produce --
Dyeing techniques: learn how to apply colour and print, from bundle dyeing to screen printing --
Projects: combine your skills to make beautiful accessories and homewares.











                                                                                       

All material © 2007-2018 by Jeanette Hyden for Grassroots Horticulture
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Monday, October 22, 2018

It's Time to Order Tulips

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Gardening + History


CREATING HERITAGE GARDENS


 Mariette Tulips 1942


I am working on a Heritage worksheet for tulips found in historical gardens  such as George Washington's Mount Vernon and Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. I hope to achieve a better understanding of the cultivars available during the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. I would eventually have it searchable by color and date of bloom, and who grew these in their gardens.



White Triumphator 1942



Table 2:  Classification of Tulips by Divisions

Early-season tulips
Division  0I - Single early flowering tulip
Early-season tulips Division  0I - Single early flowering tulip, Duc van Tol
Early-season tulips Division  2 - Double early tulip
Early-season tulips Division 12 - Kaufmanniana
Early-season tulips Division 13 - Fosteriana
Early-season tulips Division 14 - Greigii tulip (Tulipa Greigii)
Mid-season tulips Division  3 - Triumph tulip
Mid-season tulips Division  3 - Triumph tulip, Mendel
Mid-season tulips Division  4 - Darwin Hybrid Tulip
Mid-season tulips Division 10 - Parrot tulips
Late-season tulips Division  5 - Single late tulip
Late-season tulips Division  5 - Single late tulip, Breeder
Late-season tulips Division  5 - Single late tulip, Darwin
Late-season tulips Division  6 - Lily-flowered tulip
Late-season tulips Division  7 - Fringed
Late-season tulips Division  8 - Viridiflora
Late-season tulips Division  9 - Rembrandt Group
Late-season tulips Division 11 - Double late (peony flowered) tulip
Division 15 - Species



Tulipa 'Angélique 1959
Awarded AGM
Division  11 - Double late (peony flowered) tulip




Table I: Tulips Considered Heritage Tulips for Historical Gardens with bloom Time, Height, and Coloration(s)
YEAR
NAME
COLOUR(S)
HEIGHT
HERITAGE BULBS
Mt. Vernon
Monticello
Williamsburg
BLOOM
INTRODUCED
AWARDS
TIME
in
in
cm
cm
1595
Duc van Tol Red and Yellow
Red / red & gold
6
6
15
15
Heritage
X
early
1597
Florentine, woodland, sylvestris
yellow
8
12
20
30
Heritage approved
X
X
H-mid
1597
sylvestris / Florentine/woodland Species Tulipa 
yellow
8
12
20
30
Heritage approved
X
X
1607
Lady
Purple / rose & white
10
14
25
36
Heritage
X
H-mid
1620
Lac van Rijn (Tulipa kurdica ‘'Lac van Rijn'’)
Red / red-purple & ivory
14
14
36
36
Heritage
early
1620
Zomerschoon
strawberry on cream
16
18
41
46
Heritage
early
1650
Flaming Parrot
Red / red and white
18
18
46
46
Heritage
X
late
1700
Duc van Tol Cochineal
Red
6
12
Heritage
X
X
early
1700
Duc van Tol Max Cramoisie
deep red
0
0
0
0
Heritage
X
X
1700
Duc van Tol Rose
white & pink
5
7
13
18
Heritage
X
April-May
1750
Blue Flag
Blue / pearly violet
10
12
25
30
Heritage
X
early
1750
Keizerskroon, syn: Emperor's Crown
red, edged yellow blood-red edged in bright yellow
13
13
33
33
Heritage approved
early
1760
Golden Standard
Red ? Red and gold
Heritage
X
unk
1760
Silver Standard
red on white
12
14
30
36
Heritage, broken tulip
late
1760
Wapen van Leiden
white, rose, & yellow
12
14
30
36
Heritage
late
1769
Tournesol Red and Yellow
red & butterscotch
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
Biflora
white yellow
5
5
13
13
Heritage approved
April
1780
Absalon, Absalom
browns on gold
16
30
41
76
Heritage and broken
X
late
1785
Purperkroon
dusky crimson
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1816
Acuminata  syn: Fire Flame or Turkish Tulip
yellow & red
20
20
51
51
Heritage approved
H-mid
1820
Duchesse de Parma
red edged gold
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
Saxatilis
5
5
13
13
Heritage approved
April
1837
General Ney
cordovan/mahogany
18
20
46
51
Heritage
late
1840
Pottebakker White
white
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1845
Couleur Cardinal
deep red
12
14
30
36
Heritage approved
X
X
H-mid
1850
Joost van de Vondel
rose-red and white
12
18
30
46
Heritage
early
1856
Mabel
cherry red on white
18
18
46
46
Heritage
H-mid
1860
American Lac, see Le Reve (Hobbema)Grullemans Exporter?
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1860
Cerise Gris-de-Lin
rose shaded fawn
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
Humilis violacea (The Red Crocus Tulip) (confusion VanderNeer?)
Red
4
6
10
15
Heritage approved
1860
Prince of Austria
red to orange
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1860
Van der Neer  (confusion/Humilis?)
rosy purple (12-18?)
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1863
La Harpe
rosy lavender
18
22
46
56
Heritage
late
1863
Prince Albert
soft lavender & pearl
22
24
56
61
Heritage
late
1863
Proserpine ?
silky rose
10
14
25
36
Heritage
early
1872
Chrysolora
sunny yellow
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1872
Elegans Rubra
blood red
16
16
41
41
Heritage
late
1875
Mon Tresor Bontlof
Yellow / gold-edged leaves
10
15
25
38
Heritage
early
1875
Turkestanica
8
8
20
20
Heritage approved
unk
1877
Dasystemon
Yellow / star-shaped yellow flowers with white tips.
6
6
15
15
Heritage approved
unk
1877
Kaufmanniana Tulip Kaufmanniana-Type
1877 Kaufmanniana Tulip Kaufmanniana-Type
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
unk
1877
Kolpakowskiana
1877 Species Tulipa kolpakowskiana
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
unk
1884
Linifolia
Red
4
6
10
15
Heritage approved
unk
1889
Clara Butt
shell pink
22
22
56
56
Heritage
unk
1890
Bacchus Bontlof
cream-edged leaves
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1890
James Wild
Brown / brown
18
20
46
51
Heritage
late
1890
Peach Blossom
pink & white
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1891
Philippe de Comines
dark burgundy
20
24
51
61
Heritage
late
1895
Elegans Alba
vanilla
16
16
41
41
Heritage
late
1895
Koh-I-Noor
Purple / smoldering ruby/crimson/plum purple
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1897
Vuurvlam
Red / deep red
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1898
Princess Elizabeth
Pink / silvery pink
18
22
46
56
Heritage
late
1900
Bridesmaid
Red / red flames on white
14
18
36
46
Heritage
late
1900
Brunhilde
Yelloe / white golden
0
0
0
0
Heritage
unk
1903
The Lizard
Purple / rose & purple on cream
20
24
51
61
Heritage
late
1904
Generaal de Wet
Orange / amber-orange
14
14
36
36
Heritage
early
1905
Old Times
Brown / brown & gold
18
22
46
56
Heritage
late
1906
Cottage Boy
Red / cherry orange & yellow
9
10
23
25
Heritage
early
1906
Dom Pedro
Brown / brown & maroon
18
22
46
56
Heritage
late
1906
Feu Ardent
Brown / brown
22
24
56
61
Heritage
late
1908
Brilliant Star, Brilliant Star Maxima
Red / scarlet
12
13
30
33
Heritage
early
1909
Schoonoord
White / white
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1910
Bleu Aimable
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
unk
1911
Mr. Van Der Hoef
yellow
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1913
Ariadne
white
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1913
Jules Favres
orange, brown
24
28
61
71
Heritage
late
1913
Le Mogol
rose with bronze blush
22
24
56
61
Heritage
late
1913
Madras
brown 
22
26
56
66
Heritage
late
1913
Vulcan
Orange / ruddy bronze & copper
20
24
51
61
Heritage
late
1914
Alba Regalis
white
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1914
Insulinde
purple on white
16
16
41
41
Heritage
late
1916
Bleu Aimable
lilac
24
24
61
61
Heritage
late
1916
Dillenburg
peach & terra cotta
26
26
66
66
Heritage
late
1920
Black and White
dark purple on white
16
20
41
51
Heritage
late
1921
Apricot Yellow
apricot yellow
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1924
Mount Tacoma
1924 Peony Flowering Tulip Mount Tacoma
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
1927
Blue Parrot
Blue / soft lavender
20
24
51
61
Heritage approved
late
1928
Golden Harvest
soft yellow
26
26
66
66
Heritage
late
1929
Columbine
purple on white
18
18
46
46
Heritage
late
1930
Mrs. John T. Scheepers
1930 Single Late Tulip Mrs. John T. Scheepers
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
1930
Orange Favorite
orange with rose, etc.
20
20
51
51
Heritage
H-mid
1930
President Hoover
red with burnt sienna
24
26
61
66
Heritage
late
1930
Willemsoord
carmine-rose & pearl
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1932
Demeter
rosy purple
24
24
61
61
Heritage
H-mid
1933
Willem van Oranje
copper-peach
10
12
25
30
Heritage
late
1934
Dreaming Maid
1934 Triumph Tulip Dreaming Maid
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
1937
Black Parrot
dark purple
19
21
48
53
Heritage approved
H-mid
1942
Hollands Glorie
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1942
Mariette
rose to silvery pink
20
24
51
61
Heritage
late
1942
Mariette
pink, magenta, and white
0
0
0
0
Heritage approved
late
1942
Red Matador
carmine, scarlet
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1942
Rococo
red, purple, & more
14
16
36
41
Heritage approved
early
1942
white
23
25
58
64
Heritage approved
late
1943
Abodement
Multi-Color: Red and yellow flushed orange
10
10
25
25
Heritage
early
1944
Bellona
yellow
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1944
Garden Party
deep rose & white
16
18
41
46
Heritage
H-mid
1945
Oxford
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1949
Elsie Eloff
pale butter yellow
26
30
66
76
Heritage
late
1949
Margaret Herbst, Synonym: Tulipa Royal Splendour
Greigii Scarlet/Bi-Color: Red/white
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1949
Princess Irene
orange and purple
14
14
36
36
Heritage approved
unk
1951
Abba
Red / red
7
12
18
30
Heritage
early
1951
Kees Nelis (Tulipa gesneriana cv.) see Keizerskroon, syn: Emperor's Crown
Red / red with yellow
0
0
0
0
Heritage
X
X
H-mid
1951
Parade
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1952
Abe Lenstra
Purple /  pale lilac to white
22
22
56
56
heritage
late
1952
Alice Leclerq
Bi-Color: Bright orange-red/yellow edge
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
1952
Kingsblood
classic red/dark cherry red with scarlet edges
22
24
56
61
Heritage approved
late
1953
Apricot Beauty
soft apricot-pink
14
14
36
36
Heritage approved
X
X
early
1953
Mirella
pink, raspberry, silver
22
24
56
61
Heritage
H-mid
1954
Abbe Pierre
R / red
16
21
40
53
Heritage
H-mid
1954
Estella Rijnveld
red flames on white
18
20
46
51
Heritage approved
late
1954
Floradale
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1955
Cape Cod
Greigii Scarlet/Bi-Color: Red/white
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1956
Blondine
blonde & beautiful
16
20
41
51
Heritage
late
1956
Elias Martin
soft peach, yellow, rose
10
12
25
30
Heritage
early
1956
Jewel of Spring
yellow
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1956
Springtime
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1957
Royal Pearl
lemon yellow
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1959
Big Chief
rose orange
0
0
0
0
Heritage
H-mid
1959
Temple of Beauty
bold orange & fuchsia
30
32
76
81
Heritage approved
late
1900, 1913
Archeron
dark garnet-red
20
24
51
61
Heritage approved
late
unk
Angelique
unk
0
0
0
0
X
X
late
unk
Apricot Impression
soft apricot-pink
0
0
0
0
Heritage
X
X
H-mid
unk
Apricot Parrot
soft apricot-pink, apricot, tinged creamy white and neyron rose
0
0
0
0
Heritage
X
X
late
unk
Apricot, see: Cardinal Rampollo.
apricot
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
unk
Blue Diamond
Blue /
0
0
0
0
Heritage
X
X
early
unk
Brilliant Star Maxima, see: Brilliant Star.
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
early
unk
Kees Nelis T. Gesneriana cv.
Yellow / yellow with red
X
X
unk
Monte Carlo
unk
0
0
0
0
Heritage
X
X
early
unk
0
early
1986
Helmar
Yellow / yellow and red
18
18
? / (AGM)
X



I have used information available in old catalogues, from growers, botanical gardens, and research institutes:

Sources and Research



All material © 2007-2018 by Jeanette Hyden for Grassroots Horticulture
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