Botany


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         Hardy Amaryllis, Joseph's Lily (Hippeastrum johnsonii)               







Botany




Botanical Libraries






































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1Arnold Arboretum Library of Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts
2Atlanta Botanical Gardens, Sheffield Botanical Library, Atlanta, Georgia Online catalog
3Australian National Botanic Gardens Library,  Canberra, Australia
4Birmingham Botanical Gardens Library, Birminghan, Alabama
5Botanic Garden Meise, Library, Meise Belgium
6Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
7Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Forth Worth, Texas
8Boyce Thompson Arboretum, Superior, Arizona
9Brooklyn Botanical Garden Library, Brooklyn, New York
10Brookside Gardens Horticulture Library, Wheaton, Maryland
11California Academy of Sciences Library, San Francisco, California
12Cheadle Center for Biodiversity and Ecological  Restoration, C.H. Muller Library and Archives, University of California, Santa Barbara, California
13Cherokee Garden, Atlanta, Georgia
14Chicago Botanic Garden, Lenhardt Library, Chicago, Illinois
15Cleveland Botanical Garden, Eleanor Squire Library, Cleveland, Ohio
16Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de Genève, Library, Geneva, Switzerland
17Cornell University, Frank Lee Library, Geneva, New York
18Delaware State University, Claude E. Phillips Herbarium, Dover, Delaware
19Denver Botanic Gardens, Helen Fowler Library, Denver, Colorado
20Desert Botanical Garden, Schilling Library, Phoenix, Arizona
21Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, Washington, DC
22Fairchild Tropical Garden Library & Archive, Miami, Florida
23Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park, Peter M. Wege Library, Grand Rapids, Michigan
24Frelinghuysen Arboretum, Julia Appleton Cross Horticultural Reference Library, Morristown, New Jersey
25Green Spring Gardens Library, Alexandria, Virginia
26Harvard University Botany Libraries, Cambridge, Massachusetts
27Herb Society of America, Library, Kirtland, Ohio
28Holden Arboretum, Warren H. Corning Library, Kirtland, Ohio
29Horticultural Alliance of the Hamptons, The LoGerfo Library, Bridgehampton, New York
30Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Library, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
31Huntington Library and Botanical Gardens, Library, San Marino, California
32Iowa State University Library, Ames, IA
33J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College Libraries, Richmond, VA
34Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden, Lora M. Robins Library, Richmond, Virginia
35Lindley Library online catalog
36Linnaeus Online Catalog
37Lloyd Library and Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio
38Longwood Gardens Library and Archives, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania
39Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden, Arboretum  Library, Arcadia, California
40Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Research Library, Sarasota, Florida
41Massachusetts Horticultural Society Library, Wellesley, Massachusetts
42Michigan State University Libraries
43Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, Andersen Horticultural Library
44Missouri Botanical Garden, Peter H. Raven Library, St. Louis, Missouri
45Montréal Botanical Garden Library / Jardin botanique de Montréal, Bibliothèque, Montréal, Québec, Canada
46Morton Arboretum, Sterling Morton Library, Lisle, Illinois
47National Agricultural Library, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland
48National Tropical Botanical Garden Library, Lawai, Hawaii
49Natural History Museum, Botany Library, London, United Kingdom
50Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Botanical Library, Leiden, The Netherlands
51New York Botanical Garden, LuEsther T. Mertz Library, Bronx, New York
52Oak Spring Garden Library, Upperville, Virginia
53Olbrich Botanical Gardens, Schumacher Library, Madison, Wisconsin
54Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, McLean Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
55Planting Fields Arboretum, Garden Library, Oyster Bay, New York
56Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Library, Claremont, California
57Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Library, Edinburgh, Scotland
58Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Library and Archives, Kew, Surrey, United Kingdom
59Royal Horticultural Society, Lindley Library, (London / Wisley / Rosemoor / Hyde Hall / Harlow Carr), UK
60San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum, Helen Crocker Russell Library of Horticulture, San Francisco, California
61Santa Fe Botanical Garden, Terence S. Tarr Botanical and Horticultural Library, Santa Fe, New Mexico
62Sarah P. Duke Gardens, Harriet Jackson Phelps Horticultural Library, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
63Seed Savers Exchange, Robert Becker Memorial Library, Decorah, IA
64Smithsonian Libraries, Washington, DC
65Temple University Libraries, Ambler, Pennsylvania
66Toronto Botanical Garden, Weston Family Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
67Tower Hill Botanic Garden Library, Boylston, Massachusetts
68United States National Arboretum, Washington, DC
69University of California, Berkeley, University and Jepson Herbaria, Library and Archives, Berkeley, California
70University of Maryland, McKeldin Library, College Park, Maryland
71University of Washington Botanic Gardens, Elisabeth C. Miller Library, Seattle, Washington
72University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, Washington
73VanDusen Botanical Garden, Yosef Wosk Library and Resource Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada







Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago. This early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today.[7] The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC,] in archaic Avestan writings, and in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece specifically to Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BC), a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is widely regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages, almost seventeen centuries later.
Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius DioscoridesDe Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1,500 years.  Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean AgricultureAbū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's (828–896) the Book of Plants, and Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, and Ibn al-Baitar (d. 1248) wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner.
In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is usually considered to be the first which is still in its original location. These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens", often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much later to northern Europe; the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in 1621. Throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine.
German physician Leonhart Fuchs (1501–1566) was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels (1489–1534) and physician Hieronymus Bock (1498–1554) (also called Hieronymus Tragus). Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification.
Physician Valerius Cordus (1515–1544) authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in 1546. Naturalist Conrad von Gesner (1516–1565) and herbalist John Gerard (1545–c. 1611) published herbals covering the medicinal uses of plants. Naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522–1605) was considered the father of natural history, which included the study of plants. In 1665, using an early microscope, Polymath Robert Hooke discovered cells, a term he coined, in cork, and a short time later in living plant tissue.

Botanists



Brunfels, Otto  (1488-1534)
1498 Bock, Hieronymus (1498-1554)
1500 Luca Ghini (1500-1566)
1648 Hinlopen, Johan (1648 – 1709)
1656 Du Bois, Charles (1656-1740)
1656 Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de (1656-1708)
1659 Sherard, William (1659-1728)
1660 Sloane, Hans sir (1660-1753)
1663 Marot , Daniël (ca. 1663-1752)
1668 Boerhaave, Herman (1668-1738)
1669 Vaillant, Sebastien (1669-1722)
1673 Schijnvoet, Jacobus (1673-1744)
1682 Catesby, Mark (1682-1749)
1685 Clifford, George (1685-1760)
1686 Siegesbeck, Johann Georg (1686-1755)
1688 Portz, J.D.V. (1688-1753)
1690 Gronovius, Jan Frederik (1690 -1762)
1690 Wandelaar, Jan (1690-1759)
1691 Miller, Phillip (1691-1771)
1700 Augar, Isaac Eleazar (?-1737)
1700 Röell, Willem (1700-1775)
1703 Nietzel, Dietrich (1703 -1756?)
1704 Royen, Adriaan van (1704-1779)
1706 Burman, Johannes (1706-1779)
1707 Amman, Johann (1707-1741)
1707 Haller, Albrecht von (1707-1777)
1707 Linnaeus, Carl (1707-1778)
1708 Ehret, Georg Dionys (1708-1770)
1712 Clifford, Pieter (1712 – 1788)
1720 Houttuyn, Maarten, (1720-1798)
1720 Kleynhoff, Christiaan ( -1777)
1727 Royen, David van (1727-1799)
1734 Meerburgh, Nicolaas (1734-1814)
1740 Burman, Nicolaas Laurens (son)
1743 Banks, Joseph sir (1743 - 1820)
1763 Brugmans, Sebald Justinus (1763-1819)
1773 Brown, Robert (1773-1858)
1854 Valckenier Suringar, Jan (1864-1932)




A Venn diagram of the relationships between five key areas of plant physiology
Five of the key areas of study within plant physiology